At-the-market offering: Meaning, How it works, merits & demerits

What is At-The-Market Offering?

At-the-market offering sometimes referred to as ATM offering is a tool that a public corporation can use to easily gain capital by selling new shares in the stock market in increments. These offerings are more flexible and less expensive than conventional secondary stock offerings, and they can help companies raise funds by utilising company milestones, planned news releases, and upward patterns in the company’s share price or a wider range bull market.

An at-the-market offering occurs when a public corporation issues stock shares to raise capital fast. ATM offerings are typically smaller and more spread out than the more conventional follow-on offerings, which sell a fixed number of shares at a fixed price in a single lot.

ATMs are quick issuers, so businesses can usually set up an ATM facility in roughly 30 days. Numerous financial firms have ATM systems operated by traders that they pay to keep running so that they could still provide ATM services as needed.

Merits of At-the-market offerings

1. Flexibility

Aat-the-market offerings enable the issuer to become flexible and act in response to market movements: they can leverage increases in stock prices or set a base rate below which transactions will not occur.

At-the-market offerings can enable companies to raise funds rather than being subject to the shareholder-approval rules of stock exchanges.

2. Minimal market effect

At-the-market stock offerings typically provide a lesser market impact than other offerings, and there is no obligation to disclose them; additionally, investors cannot close the stock ahead of the offering because the timing is uncertain.

The notification of an At-the-market offering generally causes a smaller share-price fall than typical follow-on equity offerings.

3. Lower Costs

Commissions are often substantially smaller than for underwritten offerings. The price of an At-the-market offering is generally less than the price of conventional follow-on offerings, which vary from 1% to 3%.

Furthermore, as there is no acquirer undertaking to sell the stock, firms can evade a potential sale at low prices.

4. Speed

Sales made through an At-the-market offering are completed immediately. They’re valuable for exchanges that have to occur at a particular point in time.

Demerits of At-the-market offerings

1. Market exposure

In a bearish trend or a time-frame of share-price decrease, At-the-market offerings would not be a smarter alternative, however, a firm can easily make a choice not to consider making an At-the-market offering. 

However, they raise more scepticism than conventional follow-on offerings, and firms that require money quickly may be forced to sell at unfavourable rates if the other income alternatives are unavailable.

2. Maintenance costs

At-the-market offerings require ongoing expenses to remain operational.

3. Size

At-the-market offerings typically are smaller than conventional follow-on offerings. It is likely to not be a suitable means of generating large quantities of money promptly.

4. Availability

At-the-market offerings with are authorised offerings which are typically only accessible by issuers who can perform shelf offerings employing Form S-3.

Firms with low market volatility might not always be capable of making use of ATM offerings.

How At-the-market offering works

In an At-the-market offering, a firm offers new shares gradually to a trader at the selling price. As the corporation’s representative, the trader and corporation can alter the number of At-the-market shares provided based on the market conditions and the requirements of the organization. They are capable of taking advantage of operational achievements and employ better than average cash flows and soaring share prices that could emerge just after positive information.

At-the-market systems can go as long as the firm issuing the stocks wishes. At-the-market offerings can be used by public corporations as auxiliary, follow-on share offerings.

Firms with agendas to supply At-the-market offerings can sometimes submit a shelf registration document on Form S-3 to the SEC or obtain another that has already been issued. Firms could also use ATM offerings since these promote quick and reliable money-generating at existing rates.

Businesses that use At-the-market offerings frequently need them to secure financing as necessary throughout improved economic circumstances, without the need to publicly declare or advertise the offering, with no significant effect on existing stock values. They are particularly beneficial for businesses that do not need to generate a large number of funds in a short period due to their dribble-out disposition.

At-the-market offerings are frequently employed to pay off loans and also finance small investments or even several minor investments, research and development (R&D), development strategies or implementation of projects, or to generate capital reserves.

At-the-market offerings may also be utilized in conjunction with certain other sources of capital including conventional secondary offerings and loan offerings, enabling companies who make At-the-market offerings more versatile.

An ATM offering system might offer an extra appealing but also a less dilutive income opportunity for a company.

The accessibility of an ATM system furthermore enables the system to generate income by leveraging around a momentarily rise in value, decent financial results (generally, the ideal time to initiate an offering is briefly following the issuer’s Form 10-K or 10-Q filing), or a forthcoming landmark occasion.

At-the-market offering Fees

At-the-market offering marketing costs (typically 1-3%) are comparatively lesser than service charges related to conventional follow-on offerings.

Who Owns At-the-market offering?

Issuing firms establish programs to prepare probable investors and allocate shares—a simplified variant of a standard public offering.

A sales representative, typically an investment company, afterwards distributes information about the ATM to individuals and business corporations, revealing an opening date when shares would become obtainable.


If a public corporation does have a public float of around $75 million or meets several other eligibility criteria, it can qualify to integrate an ATM system. A corporation which identifies as a well-known seasoned issuer has more leeway.

A well-known seasoned issuer can indeed submit an immediately beneficial shelf registration document, and the document does not need to include a cumulative dollar figure. Therefore, a well-known seasoned issuer could enter the market as soon as its registration document is approved.

An issuer who is not a well-known seasoned issuer and doesn’t have an appropriate shelf registration document must submit a registration document specifying the amounts of stock to be registered, which is often liable to SEC remarks. 

An acquirer with under $75 million in estimated selling value will be subject to Form S-3 Instruction 1.B.6 (a), which restricts the number the acquirer may offer to one-third of the public float every interval of 12 months.


Public corporations often utilize At-the-market offerings to stay afloat in the market with leverage. This article brought to bear all there is to know about At-the-market practices.

How does At-the-market offering affect the price of stocks?

At-the-market offers the issuing company the position to raise capital when they are needed in the market. 

How long does it take for At-the-market offering to last?

It takes no more than 3 years for At-the-market offering to last in the market. 

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Richard Okoroafor

Richard Okoroafor

Richard is a brilliant legal content writer who doubles as a finance lawyer. He brings his wealth of legal knowledge in corporate commercial transactions to bear, offering the best value that exceeds expectations.

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